In the 18th century Empress Maria Theresa created a new state-run educational system. Pharmacists were no longer trained within the guilds alone, but had to attend newly established courses at the medical faculties of universities. They graduated as Masters of Pharmacy (Magister pharmaciae).
Franz Hruschauer, a student of Liebig, was the first chairman of the newly established Institute of Chemistry (1850-1858) at the Old University of Graz. Under his guidance the first pharmacy course was conducted in 1853. The pharmacy education was performed in close cooperation with the Joanneum, which was founded in 1811 by Archduke Johann. The Joanneum was a teaching institution and a museum, which housed large Natural Science collections that were used for teaching at the University.
Until the end of the 19th century, the pharmacy curriculum included courses in the fields of zoology, botany, chemistry, physics, mineralogy, and Pharmacognosy. In 1855, a laboratory for pharmacy students was opened to shift the main focus of education from theoretical lectures to practical exercises. From 1858 to 1861, Johann Gottlieb taught the students in Pharmaceutical Chemistry. In 1878, under the guidance of Leopold von Pebal, a student of Bunsen, a new Chemistry Institute was built. Pebal also organized modern equipment for the laboratories. His successors were Zdenko Hans Skraup (1887-1906) and Roland Scholl (1907-1914). In the era of Anton Skrabal (1917-1943), the Institute of Chemistry was divided into three institutes. One of them was the Institute of Organic and Pharmaceutical Chemistry. The chairman of the Institute of Organic and Pharmaceutical Chemistry was Alois Zinke (1943-1963), followed by Erich Ziegler (1963-1978). In 1964, the Pharmaceutical Chemistry became a separate institute with Gustav Zigeuner as head (1964-1990), followed by Werner Korsatko (1991-1995), and Ernst Haslinger (1995-2004).
In 1909, Otto Loewi, the later Nobel Prize winner, became the director of the Institute of Pharmacology and Pharmacognosy (1909-1938), which was belonging to the Medical Faculty. A separate chair for Pharmacognosy, headed by Rudolf Müller (1909-1937), was established at the same institute. In 1939, Pharmacognosy became a separate institute, which was shifted to the Faculty of Philosophy and later in 1976, to the newly established Faculty of Natural Sciences. At the Institute of Pharmacognosy, Willibald Hauser (1937-1939), Robert Fischer (1939-1973), Theodor Kartnig (1973-1999), Alois Hiermann (1999-2002), and Rudolf Bauer (2002-2004) were chairmen.
In 1919, Otto Loewi established the first lecture for Pharmaceutical Technology at the Medical Faculty which was supported by the Styrian government. Fritz Wischos, chief of the hospital pharmacy, lectured this course from 1921 to 1932 followed by Ludwig Zechner from 1933 to 1938 and Norbert Schniderschitsch from 1938 onward. During his period, the education in pharmaceutical technology was shifted from the hospital pharmacy to the university where a Department for Applied Pharmacy was established within the Institute of Pharmaceutical Chemistry. Between 1959 and 1969, L. Zechner was again chairman of the Department of Galenics. Christian Knopp (1969-1989), Werner Korsatko (1989-2000), and Ernst Haslinger (2000-2004) subsequently headed this Department of Pharmaceutical Technology. From 1995 to 2001 the Department was an independent institute.
In 1973, the Institute of Pharmacodynamics and Toxicology separated from the Institute of Experimental and Clinical Pharmacology of the Medical Faculty. The head of the new Institute of Pharmacodynamics and Toxicology was Walter Kukovetz from 1973 to 1997. In 1992, the former institute was renamed to the Institute of Pharmacology and Toxicology. From 1998 to 2004 Bernd-Michael Mayer was head of the institute.
(Rudolf Bauer, Univ.-Prof. Dr.rer.nat.)